Everything you need to know about Parenchymal Disease

Parenchymal kidney disease are described as cysts on the kidneys which are filled with a liquid. For unknown reasons these cysts are appearing inside the kidneys and can have a serious impact on their functions. However, commonly, kidney cysts are called simple kidney cysts – the non-cancer genic cysts that are rarely causing complications. It is not yet known what causes these simple kidney cysts. It is typical that only one cyst appears on the surface of the kidneys, but it can occur that one cyst affects one or both kidneys. Parenchymal disease on kidneys are commonly discovered during screening, because of doubts on some other condition. Simple cysts on kidneys usually do not cause any symptoms and their presence doesn’t require treatment.

Causes of parenchymal disease

It is yet unclear what causes simple kidney cysts. One theory suggests that kidney cysts develop once the surface layer of the kidneys weakens, creating a little bag. It starts to separate and develops into a full sized cyst.

Symptoms of kidney cysts

Simple cysts on the kidneys usually do not cause any causes or symptoms. In case the cyst becomes big enough, these symptoms may include:

  • Numb pain in back or on the side
  • Fever
  • Pain in the upper belly

Treatment of kidney cysts

Treatment in most cases isn’t even necessary. If the kidney cysts shows no sign or symptoms and has no ill effect towards functioning of the kidneys, treatment is not an option. Besides that, your doctor might recommend that you do check in every once in a while to get an ultrasound test to see how are the cysts developing. If there are obvious growths in kidney cysts, treatment is required. In most cases, however, the cyst will perish on its own.

If your cyst does show symptoms, there are several options. First and most obvious option is to puncture the cyst and then refill it with alcohol. Rarely, I order to reduce the volume of the cyst, doctor will insert a long thin needle through the skin and through the walls of the kidney cyst. This is how the fluid is being extracted out of it. Usually it gets refilled with an alcohol solution to prevent any further issues, and in most cases cysts do disappear permanently after this process so this is considered to be one of the most effective procedures.

Large or symptomatic cysts may require surgery with the main goal being its removal. In order to reach the cysts the doctor will perform a series of tiny cuts on your skin, through which he will insert special medical instruments as well as a tiny video camera. Surgeon then leads the instruments to the kidneys and uses them to let the fluid out of the cysts. Depending on the type of the procedure, treatment for kidney cysts may require a short period of time to be spent inside the hospital.

 

Certain Candida Die Off Symptoms

There are many different fungi living in our digestive tract, as well as inside women’s vaginas. These can, under certain circumstances, cause serious health issues. Modern lifestyle, fast food, excessive intake of sugar and white flour, stress, routine antibiotic treatment, contraceptive pills etc. can lead towards a pathogenic infection caused by yeasts or fungi. Most common among these is called candida, which is known to attack skin, nails, oral, vaginal, urinary and anal mucus. Presence of candida can be diagnosed by testing stool samples, spit, blood and urine. Depending on the laboratory, an analysis of these samples can be done to trace candida.

Treatment of candida

It is fairly simple to get rid of a candida infection. You should put your diet in the focal point of your treatment, as you can get rid of candida infection by radically changing the way you’re eating, and keeping up with your strict diet for a couple of months. It’s important to know that yeast such as candida live of carbohydrates. Glucose and fructose are two types of sugars that candida strives from so it is important to limit your intake of carbohydrates. This is not a diet which limits the amount of food, only the type of food you are eating. You shouldn’t be walking around hungry – eat when you’re hungry and eat as much as you need to have enough energy.

Recognizing candida dying off

Obviously, as you’re changing your eating habits and treating your candida infection you will feel the regular symptoms dying off. This is a clear indication that your treatment is working properly and you should just stick with it for as long as you can. When it comes to white flour and sugar, you might want to consider getting rid of it entirely, as these are the two most effective foods for candida yeast. Depending on the severity and types of symptoms it is difficult to determine how many people are actually suffering from candida infection. Statistics show that every third individual in the western world has had or has one or more types of parasitic candida infection. The best way to confirm that your candida is closing in on its death is to take blood and urine tests as these will show everything that is going on inside your body in regards to candida and its growth.

Foods you can eat

Feel free to eat as much of meat and fish as you desire. You should expel all foods that contain sugar or any sub-types of sugar, as well as rice, corn, alcoholic beverages, mushrooms, margarine, dough etc. You can eat as much of vegetables that grows above ground, garlic, onions, lemon, avocados, rice and soy milk. If you’re craving for sugary sweets you might want to stick with your Stevia bottle as this is a genius invention for people who are struggling with candida. Depending on the severity of your symptoms you should stick with this altered diet for as long as you need to get rid of as much of candida as you can.

 

The Ultimate Guide to Implantation Symptoms

Implantation represents attaching of the blastocyst to the shell of the uterus, where it then starts do dig in. Blastocyst usually nests in the upper half of the uterus on the front or rear shell. Shell of the blastocyst is made by one layer of cells in all but one area where three to four layers of cells are found. Inner cells on that thickened spot on the blastocyst start do develop into an embryo, and the outer cells dig into the uterus shell, forming placenta. Placenta has an important role of creating hormones that aid your body in understanding and following through with your pregnancy, enabling oxygen and nutrients exchange in between mother and the new living being. Implantation begins in between 5 to 8 days after fertilization and is done by the 9th or 10th day.

Obvious implantation symptoms

Typical implantation symptoms vary and there is a lot of confusion regarding false alarm pregnancies. Even though most women experience signs of implantation in the couple of weeks after fertilization, they are commonly very subdued and not obvious. Some of these symptoms may occur because of other reasons, which have no straight correlation to the pregnancy itself.

  • Late periods
  • Implantation bleeding

During implantation, 5 to 6 days after merging of the egg cell and a spermatozoid, the so called implantation bleeding can occur. This is a minor bleeding, commonly accompanied by cramps in the lower part of the stomach, which is caused by contraction of the uterus muscles as the blastocyst is finding its way into it.

  • Nausea and inability to withstand smells

These symptom can also indicate pregnancy, being caused by physical and hormonal changes that occur in a woman’s body during pregnancy. Some women experience no nausea to speak of, while other women experience severe nausea, mostly in the mornings.

  • Swollen and sensitive breasts

This symptom is fairly common with women who experience it slightly before their periods. In case there is no period to be noted, there is a high chance that pregnancy is in effect.

  • Headaches

Increased volume of blood in the body causes strain and tension inside the head, which does show with varying headaches. Some women experience this symptom during the entire pregnancy.

  • Back pain

Due to the growth of the uterus and the pressure it causes to the nerve endings in its proximity, this is a common symptom of early pregnancy experienced by a vast percentage of women.

Blastocyst plays a critical role

Shell of the blastocyst creates an outer shell which then surrounds the embryo. Inner layer of this shell is developed in about 10th to 12th day, creating the so called amniotic cavity. This cavity starts to fill up with clear fluid (known as amniotic fluid) and starts to spread inside the uterus mucus, branching across like a tree. This shape allows the surface area to increase significantly, improving the exchange rate of oxygen and nutrients in between mother and the child. Placenta is completely formed with about 18 to 20 weeks into pregnancy, but it does proceed to grow during the entire pregnancy process, weighing in at about 500 grams in the end.

 

Asbestos Lung Cancer

Cancer is a genetic disease that arise from changes to genes that control the way our body cells function especially as it concerns cell division or growth. This means that cancers are caused when some cells or a cell grows or divides abnormally and without ceasing to divide. It is an uncontrolled growth of cells that result to cancer. These changes to genes that cause abnormal growth of cells can be hereditary or environmental. Cancers arise from various parts of our body such as breast, eye, cervix, lungs, and kidney and so on. Environmental sources that can cause or trigger cancer include exposure or intake some lights, radiation, chemicals.

Causes of Asbestos Lung Cancer

In this article, we will consider and discuss lungs cancer that is caused by Asbestos. This variation of lung cancer is called Asbestos lung cancer. This is simply explained as a cancer of the lungs that is caused or triggered by exposure of the lungs to high amount toxic Asbestos fibers which is either inhaled or ingested. Poisonous fibers from Asbestos can cause other diseases such as mesothelioma or other very threatening diseases.

These toxic and poisonous fiber from Asbestos can trigger genetic changes which will cause genes to behave abnormal and in extension, results into abnormal growth or division in the cells.  The fiber of the Asbestos attack the mesothelial cells when inhaled in large amount. With time, the DNA (Deoxyribonucleic Acid) gets destroyed or damaged that will lead to cancer. The exposure of the mesothelial cells to Asbestos fiber is the fundamental and basic cause of Asbestos Lung cancer. Ordinary Lung cancer can be triggered by cigarettes smoking. Reports had it that in a large study of 1,047 asbestos industry employees, a malignant tumor was listed as the official cause of death for 208 workers and majority where as a result of Asbestos cancer. Inhaled asbestos can lodge in the lining of organs, causing cells to mutate and become cancerous cells to grow.

Signs and Symptoms of Asbestos Lung Cancer

It is generally known and spoken by medical personnel and officials that early detection of any ailment or disease is good and it aids diagnosis and treatment of such ailment. May I tell you that cancer is not an exception to this rule? As dangerous and dreadful as cancer is known to be, early detection has been the factor that helped safe few people that had their cancer cured. For a disease that involves growth of cells, it needs time and early detection with good treatment means the victim has a good chance.

Workers in industries and factories dealing with Asbestos should always be watchful and careful. Persons with health history of asbestos exposure need to always be careful of certain signs in their body that may signal Lung cancer. These will make them take serious look at their lung health and function. Breathing problem, shortness of breath, coughing and chest pain are symptoms of asbestos lung cancer, laryngeal cancer and pleural mesothelioma.

Diagnosis and Treatments of Asbestos Lung Cancer

Diagnosis is the set of medical procedures or tests done to ascertain if a patient is affected by a particular or specific disease. This will confirm the symptoms and signs that must have prompted anyone to the hospital. Diagnosis starts from when you visit you doctor at the hospital to check you up based on the signs and symptoms you claimed to have detected. Diagnosis for cancer is always lengthy. Imaging tests using XRAY, CT SCAN AND PET are utilized to view probable tumor or cancerous cells in the body. Blood tests are also employed to ascertain abnormal blood cell counts. Biopsies, which are samples of tissue collected in and around a tumor, help determine which kind of cancer is present.

For asbestos lung cancer diagnosis, the above tests are enough to confirm presence of asbestos lung cancer. For treatment, quite some number of treatments are available in treating cancer.

Nearly all types of cancer is treated through surgery, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy however, some other therapy like hormone therapy is used for breast cancer, immunotherapy is used for some and photodynamic therapy is used and approved for the treatment of asbestos lung cancer. But in case we have Mesothelioma, chemotherapy which is used for all cancer treatment can be used for Mesothelioma.

 

Melanoma Survival Rate

As for every dreadful diseases and ailments, once diagnosis and necessary tests confirm and show anyone is infected with any of the known deadly and dreadful diseases, he or she would immediately seek to know and be told his or her chances of survival for a particular or specific period of time like 5years to 10 years and based on the stage of the disease when diagnosed. This is known as Survival Rate. Survival Rate is the determining factor that shows how long a group of people with the same stage of the same disease will survive from the time of diagnosis. In the world today, one of the deadliest diseases or ailment is Cancer. Cancer is famously known to affect several parts of the human body to cause cancer like Breast cancer, skin cancer, and kidney cancer, cancer of the cervix, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and lots more. Survival rates are gotten from statistical data of people having the same ailment at the same stage when diagnosed and how many years they lived after they have been confirmed and diagnosed of such disease. They average years lived for each of the people in that stage results into the survival rate. In this article, I will be discussing the survival rate of Melanoma skin cancer.

Statistics data for a certain type and stage of cancer are often given as 5-year or 10-year survival rates, but many people live longer – often much longer. The survival rate is the percentage of people who live at least a certain amount of time after being diagnosed with cancer.

For example, a 5-year survival rate of 75% means that an estimated 75 out of 100 people who have that cancer are still alive 5 years after being diagnosed. Keep in mind, however, that many of these people live much longer than 5 years after diagnosis.

It is crucial to say that survival rate is based on previous data collected and analyzed and this might not be the case for you because they are estimates. This is so because medical breakthrough over some ailment may increase survival rate of some people than what has been previously recorded.

Survival rates for melanoma skin cancer

The following survival rates are based on nearly 60,000 patients who were part of the 2008 AJCC Melanoma Staging Database. These survival rates include some people diagnosed with melanoma who may have died later from other causes or infection. Therefore, the percentage of people surviving the melanoma itself may be higher.

Stage IA: The 5-year survival rate is around 97%. The 10-year survival is around 95%.

Stage IB: The 5-year survival rate is around 92%. The 10-year survival is around 86%.

Stage IIA: The 5-year survival rate is around 81%. The 10-year survival is around 67%.

Stage IIB: The 5-year survival rate is around 70%. The 10-year survival is around 57%.

Stage IIC: The 5-year survival rate is around 53%. The 10-year survival is around 40%.

Stage IIIA: The 5-year survival rate is around 78%. The 10-year survival is around 68%.*

Stage IIIB: The 5-year survival rate is around 59%. The 10-year survival is around 43%.

Stage IIIC: The 5-year survival rate is around 40%. The 10-year survival is around 24%.

Stage IV: The 5-year survival rate is about 15% to 20%. The 10-year survival is about 10% to 15%. The outlook is better if the spread is only to distant parts of the skin or distant lymph nodes rather than to other organs, and if the blood level of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is normal.

*The survival rate is higher for stage IIIA cancers than for some stage II cancers. This is likely because the main (primary) tumor is often less advanced for IIIA cancers, although this is not clear.

Remember, these survival rates are only estimates – they can’t predict what will happen to any individual. We understand that these statistics can be confusing and might lead you to have more questions. Talk to your doctor to better understand your specific situation.

However, other factors affect survival rate of some people and these factors include:

  •  Older people mostly have shorter survival times than younger people, regardless of stage.
  • Melanoma is uncommon among African Americans, when it occurs rarely, survival time is shorter when compared to whites.
  • People with melanoma and a feeble and weak immune systems from organ transplants or people with HIV will also have shorter survival time.
 

The Causes and Treatment of Mesothelioma

Did you know in the US there are nearly 3,000 diagnosed cases of mesothelioma annually? A mesothelioma is a form of cancer that occurs in the thin layer of tissue. It covers the majority of your internal organs. Mesothelioma is a chronic type of cancer. Treatment of mesothelioma is available but for most of the people, the cure is not possible.

Usually, doctors divide the mesothelioma into different types. This depends on what part of the mesothelium is affected. In most cases, mesothelioma affects the tissue that cover the lungs. This form is known as pleural mesothelioma. Some other types of mesothelioma affect the tissue in the abdomen, around the heart and testicles.

This article highlights the causes, symptoms, stages and treatments of mesothelioma.

Types of Mesothelioma

There are 2 ways through which the type of mesothelioma can be discovered. The first way is by finding the location of the tumor. The second way is by categorizing by cell structure cancer may have. The most commonly used it the way is by the location where it develops. Mesothelioma develops in the lining if the organs and is found in 3 areas.

Pleural Mesothelioma

This is the most common type of mesothelioma which is found near the lungs. This is caused by the inhalation of fibers of asbestos.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma

Another type of mesothelioma is caused by swallowing the asbestos fibers. These fibers can be trapped in the lining of the abdomen.

Pericardial Mesothelioma

In this, the fibers of asbestos can get lodged in the pericardium. It is the lining of the heart cavity. Pericardial mesothelioma is the rarest type of mesothelioma.

Causes of Mesothelioma

There was a time when Mesothelioma was a rare cancer. But in recent times it is becoming more common. Men are prone to mesothelioma as they have been exposed to asbestos at work. According to experts, asbestos is the cause in most cases of pleural mesothelioma. The worker is at greater risk of having this cancer. If they are exposed to large amounts of asbestos from an early age.

What is Asbestos?

Asbestos is a material that is heat and fire resistant. Previously, asbestos was widely used in the

  • Building industry
  • Power stations
  • Motor industry

 How Asbestos Causes Mesothelioma?

Asbestos consists of tiny fibers that a person can easily breathe in when comes in contact. The fibers travel to the linings that cover lungs, abdomen, and heart. These fibers irritate the pleura and may cause biological changes which may cause inflammation and genetic changes. This leads to the growth of cancer. If some fibers are coughed up and swallowed, it might cause peritoneal mesothelioma.

According to a research, family of people exposed to asbestos has greater risk of developing it too. The fibers of asbestos can be carried home through clothes.

The SV40

It was reported that people who come in contact with Simian Virus 40 (SV40) and are exposed to asbestos as well. They are likely to develop mesothelioma. It can be said that SV40 is a co-factor in causing mesothelioma. But it is not confirmed yet.

Symptoms of Mesothelioma

The symptoms of the mesothelioma are often associated with other diseases. This is why it is difficult to diagnose. Some of the common symptoms are:

  • Weight Loss
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Effusion in the lungs or abdomen
  • Anemia
  • Chest pain
  • Trouble breathing
  • Abdominal pain
  • Abdominal swelling

Stages of Mesothelioma

Stage 1

The mesothelioma cells are found in the pleural surrounding the lung on one side of the chest. Moreover, it can further be divided into 2 stages. First, the mesothelioma cells found on the outer layer of the pleural, on one side. Second, mesothelioma cells found in the inner layer of the pleural.

Stage 2

In this stage, the mesothelioma cells have spread to both the layers of the pleural on one side of the body. It might have spread into the diaphragm muscle or the lung tissue.

Stage 3

The mesothelioma cells have spread to the chest wall or covering of the heart. But it removable through surgery. Another possibility is that the tumor has spread to the lymph nodes.

Stage 4

This is the last stage of mesothelioma which is not curable. This is because the mesothelioma has:

  • Spread to different parts of the chest wall.
  • Have grown through the diaphragm into the peritoneum.
  • Has spread to other parts of the body.
  • Has spread to the lymph nodes on the other side of the chest.
  • Spread to the chest organs.

The doctors usually use Tumor, Lymph nodes and metastasis (TNM system) to diagnose mesothelioma.

Treatment of Mesothelioma

After diagnosing the stage of mesothelioma, the next step is to the treatment options. Though there is no cure for mesothelioma but several therapies are available. In some cases, the treatments can improve the prognosis extending their lives significantly.

Surgery

The patients with an early stage, surgery can be performed. Surgery may include removing the mesothelial lining, lymph nodes or part of the lung.

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy drugs work by attacking the fast-growing cells of cancer. It is often used in combination with surgery. Chemotherapy helps in removing any mesothelioma cells that was unable to be removed.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is used in shrinking the tumor that makes it easy to be removed by surgery. Radiation can be delivered using an internal or external source. It depends on the location of the tumor.

The stage 4 mesothelioma cannot be cured. This is the reason the treatment is based on relieving pain.

Insurance and Settlement

If a person is exposed to asbestos and is diagnosed with mesothelioma is eligible for financial compensation. The compensation will be provided by the asbestos manufacturers. The patient of mesothelioma may receive compensation for medical bills and any expense related to it.

Furthermore, most of the cases are settled before reaching the courtroom. The settlement amounts are often linked with the medical bills and mental and psychical distress. The exact settlement amount is private and claimants are bound by the confidentiality agreements.

Overall, mesothelioma is becoming a common type of cancer that must be treated as soon as possible.

 

White Line Disease

There is a wide variety of illnesses that are affecting the hoof. Numerous reasons are the cause for this, but in general, lacking care and poor hygiene is what makes everything bad in the first place. Hoof is on contact with a lot of contaminated soil and it is prone to injury as well. When you mix blood and contaminants you know that something is going to get bad pretty soon. One of the prime examples of such diseases is the white line disease which is a very common problem affecting free running horses all over our country. There’s no one to be blamed in the whole ordeal really, as the hoof generally appears quite robust and resistant, so one might not ever expect for a disease to start sprouting out of it. However, it is quite a lively part of your horse and it requires a lot more attention than you might think.

Injury prevention is the best way to avoid white line disease

Sure, we all get injured and bloodied every once in a while, but this needs to be said. If you’re careful about where you’re taking your horse and you have it at close quarters you will be able to prevent most hoof injuries, including white line disease. Proper hygiene and cleaning after every ride is a must. This is when you should inspect all four of your horse’s hoofs closely. Since the animal is tired from the run this should be no problem and a horse knows when it is being nurtured so he will enjoy it.

Signs to look out for

You should keep an eye out for any type of cut or swelling. This includes watery bubbles that can burst at any point and expose vulnerable tissue to the contaminants on the ground. These types of swelling can be induced by numerous ways, whether the horse is suffering from some kind of a disorder or there is a physical injury underneath – the point is that these types of growths represent risk factors for development of white line disease. If your horse gets injured and bloodied on the hoof, it is necessary that you take all the possible precautions and prevent further complications from occurring. By doing so you will be saving your horse’s leg, as this disease is nothing to be joking around with.

Treatment of white line disease

Since this disease is fungal in its nature, it can sometimes be easily treated with application of bleach based solutions as this will purge any fungus and bacteria from the area. The problem is that there are fungus and bacteria in the horse’s blood stream which means that you might consider administering antibiotics to your horse. Before venturing on your own to find these, take a sample of your horse’s blood and take it for an analysis to check if there is a necessity to take antibiotics. The blood test will show if there is an imminent reaction to the bacteria and you will be able to determine what type of antibiotics are to be used.

 

 

Everything you need to know about Motor Neurone Disease

First definition of this devastating disease was given by Aran 1850, while 1869 was the year when French neurologist Scharco provided the public with a wider and more detailed description of the illness, putting an emphasis onto its effect on the corticospinal pathway. In his honor you might hear about Scharco’s disease, as it was given to it in his honor. Lou Gehrig has died on top of his career due to this disease back in 1941. In American literature description of the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis can commonly be found under his name. Another worldwide known name is Stephen Hawking, who is considered to be the most successful astrophysicist of the modern era. He’s been dealing with motor neurone disease back from the 1960s.

Definition of motor neurone disease

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is the most common type of motor neurone disease. It is a disease which affects the lower motor neuron (LMN), localized within the brainstem and some parts of the lateral spinal cord, spreading all the way up to the muscles and into the upper motor neuron (UMN).

Sporadic, chronic disease of the neurone motor

  • Affecting upper and lower motor neuron (ALS)
  • With predominant affecting of the upper motor neuron (primary lateral sclerosis)
  • With predominant affecting of the lower motor neuron;
    1. Multifocal motor neuropathy with conductive block
    2. Motor neuropathy with paraproteinemia or cancer
  • Other:
    1. Conditions connected to other degenerative disorders – amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson’s, demention, UMN in 97% of cases
    2. Secondary disease of the motor neuron as the paraneoplastic syndrome.

Hereditary diseases of neurone motor

  • Affecting upper and lower motor neuron, auto somatic dominant form and auto somatic recessive form
  • Affecting lower motor neuron:
    1. Spinal muscular atrophy
    2. Spin bulbar muscular atrophy connected in an “X”
    3. GM2 gangliosidosis
    4. Sandhoff’s Disease

Biological foundation

Central pathologic facts are that disease affects motor neuron pathways within the brain. Loss of motor neurons is most significant in the lumbal, then cervical part and less in brainstem. Death of cells isn’t proven inside the motor cortex. On a subcellular level disease manifests itself with involution, gathering of the bodies assembled in the motor cortex. Patients will experience astrogliosis, and while some scientists note accumulation of lymphocytes, others negate the presence of any sort of inflammatory reaction. In the cells themselves aggregates of ubiquitin positive cytoskeletal elements are being accumulated such as neurofilaments, fragmentation of the Goldie’s apparatus and assembly and tearing of cytoskeletal matter in the proximal part of axon. Up until today there have been almost 50 SOD1 mutations recognized with families who are dealing with familiar ALS. SOD1 is an enzyme which functions as a homo dimmer containing two proteins from 153 amino acids. This enzyme converts the superoxide anion into hydrogen peroxide, which converts further to free radicals and based on that dictates the reactions to follow.

 

What are the Causes, Symptoms and Treatment for Kawasaki Disease

Kawasaki disease is a condition which causes inflammation to initiate on the interior walls of arteries throughout the entire body, including coronary arteries which are supplying the heart muscles with blood. It also has an effect on lymph nodes, skin and mucus inside the oral cavity, nose and throat. Symptoms of Kawasaki disease such as high body temperature and skin shedding can be quite terrifying. However, good news are that Kawasaki disease can usually be treated, with most children recovering from Kawasaki disease without any serious issues.

Causes of Kawasaki Disease

It isn’t yet known what exactly causes Kawasaki disease, but scientists do not believe that it is transferrable. Numerous theories connect the disease with bacteria, viruses and other environmental factors, but nobody has proven it just yet. Specific genes may increase your child’s sensitivity to Kawasaki disease.

Symptoms of Kawasaki Disease

Symptoms of Kawasaki disease appear in phases. Signs and symptoms within the first phase can include:

  • High body temperature which lasts for more than five days
  • Very intense red tone to the eyes (conjunctivitis)
  • Rash on genital area
  • Red, dry and damaged lips; extremely red, swollen and painful tongue
  • Swollen and red skin on feet
  • Swollen lymph nodes on neck (and in other spots)
  • Irritability

Within the second phase of the disease more symptoms arise:

  • Shedding of skin on arms and legs, particularly on the tops of fingers, quite extensively
  • Joint pain
  • Diarrhea and vomiting
  • Stomach cramps

In the third phase of the illness, signs and symptoms slowly fade away in case there are no complications to speak of. This can last up to eight weeks, before the level of child’s energy is back to normal. If your child is experiencing temperature that lasts for more than four days, you should consult your doctor; especially if the fever comes together with any or all of the above-mentioned symptoms. Treatment of Kawasaki disease within 10 days since its initiation can vastly improve chances to avoid permanent damage to health.

Treatment of Kawasaki Disease

In order to reduce the risk of complications, doctor will begin treatment of Kawasaki disease as soon as possible, right after you report your symptoms and problems. Tasks of the treatment is to lower the body temperature, decrease the effect of inflammations, all in order to prevent any damage to be done to the heart. In order to accomplish all this, your doctor may suggest:

  • Gamma globulin infusion of the immune protein (globulin) intravenously, as this can reduce risks of problems related to coronary arteries.
  • Aspirin – high dosages of aspirin will help with inflammation treatment. It can reduce pain and joint inflammation as well as reduce body temperature. Kawasaki disease is a rare exception in a rule where you shouldn’t treat your children with aspirin.

Due to the dangers of serious complications, first treatment is usually done inside the hospital. If your child experiences lower body temperature quickly, low doses of aspirin are to be administered over the course of six weeks at least.

 

Macular dystrophy – Stargardt’s Disease

In correlation to hereditary genetic mutations, macular dystrophy causes disturbances of the inner black array of the eye where retina and photosensitive cells are located (photoreceptors). As the name would suggest, the macula (yellow spot) on the retina is being attacked during the course of macular dystrophy. Macula is the central part of the retina which contains photoreceptors responsible for central vision and color perception. Once it is damaged or gets dislocated during macular dystrophy, your central eyesight is damaged which may lead to permanent blindness.

What causes macular dystrophy?

Macular dystrophy differs a lot from more common eye disease known as macular degeneration, which is commonly caused by aging and the friction between retina and macula. While aging and other risk factors such as smoking do cause certain forms of macular degeneration, macular dystrophy is connected to genetic mutations which – with no apparent reason – cause degradation of the retina cells. Some forms of macular dystrophy are more prominent in childhood, while other forms appear at adult age. However, sometimes it is difficult to differentiate macular degeneration from hereditary macular dystrophy due to the similarities of the symptoms, which includes reduced eye sight and loss of central vision. One of the more common aspects of macular dystrophy is stargardt’s disease which takes up about 70% of macular dystrophy cases, usually being prominent in one’s childhood.

Diagnosis of stargardt’s disease

Symptoms of macular dystrophy can include reduced eyesight sharpness without any clear reason such as refractive errors or cataract. In case your eye doctor suspects you might be dealing with macular dystrophy, he can prescribe special eye tests which aren’t a part of the usual eye exam to establish a definitive diagnosis. For an example, test which is called fluorescent angiography can detect damage done by macular dystrophy effects. Test which uses optic coherent tomography (OCT) is also a valid option in order to determine and analyze the tissue pattern to check for presence of yellow-brown pigment which is located in the retinal pigment epithelium. Another option of definitive diagnosis is electroretinography which suggests positioning of the electrodes to the outer surface of the eye to measure your eye’s photoreceptors response to light.

Treatment of macular dystrophy

In case you’re dealing with macular dystrophy, you will need to visit a retina specialist who will help you determine the exact nature of your illness. For an example, some types of this condition are progressive and others are not. Genetic analysis and advisement may be required to determine the type of macular dystrophy you have and will this condition be transferred to your children. Also, you can make better choices about family planning if you have an idea of the degree of eye sight loss in correlation to your type of macular dystrophy. In this moment there isn’t a scientifically proven treatment for macular dystrophy. Genetic therapy has shown great potential but there is more research to be done.